Rome Reborn

Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities

Rome Reborn

Additional source material

  • Ancient Library Sources (from Peter Aicher, Rome Alive: A Source Guide to the Ancient City, vol. 1, Bolchazy-Carducci: 2004) [Works cited]

    18. Temple of Juno Moneta. Commentary.

    Several basic questions persist concerning the Temple of Juno Moneta; its location, and the lack of vestiges, have been called “one of the great enigmas in the topography of ancient Rome”(Richardson, 215). That it stood on the summit of the Citadel rather than on the other two areas of the hill is certain, but some topographers place it under the church of S. Maria d' Aracoeli, while others place it closer to the edge of the hill in the direction of the Forum, on the ancient substructions visible in the little park there today alongside the stairway up to the back of the church.

    Secondly, what is the relationship between the Temple of Juno Moneta and her earlier presence on the hill? Later tradition gave Juno a precinct on the Capitoline at least back to the time of the Gallic invasion in 390 BC, when her sacred geese honked their way into history, but tradition also has it that the temple dedicated in 344 BC was built on the site of the house of the patrician hero Manlius, not on the site of a previous temple or sanctuary.

    As the ancients (incorrectly) understood the word, the epithet “Moneta” originated from Juno's role in warning (monere) the Romans. Subsequently, the temple also contained Rome's mint for four centuries, before it was moved to a new location near the Colosseum in Domitian's reign. Moneta thus came to mean “mint” in Latin, and was the origin of the English words “monetary” and “money.”


    18. Temple of Juno Moneta. Sources.

    18.1.

    [The Gauls climbed up the Capitoline at night without a single person noticing them,] but some of the sacred geese being raised in the sanctuary of Juno gave the alarm by honking and rushing at the intruders.

    Dionysius, Early Rome 13.7.3


    18.2.

    They say that on June 1st the Temple of Juno Moneta (vowed,

    Camillus, by you) was dedicated on the summit of the Citadel.

    The site was once the home of Manlius, who drove

    The armies of Gaul away from Jupiter Capitolinus.

    Ovid, Fasti 6.183-86


    18.3.

    Since the Aurunci had begun the hostilities and were not shying away from battle, Lucius Furius Camillus, the appointed dictator [in 345 BC], decided that the aid of the gods ought to be summoned for the conflict and accordingly vowed a temple to Juno Moneta. Victorious and under the vow's obligation, he returned to Rome and resigned from his post.

    The senate appointed two commissioners to build this temple in a style suited to the greatness of the Roman people. A site was chosen for it on the Citadel, where the house of M. Manlius Capitolinus had been.… The Temple of Moneta was dedicated one year after the vow.

    Livy, History 7.28.4-6


    18.4.

    [Cicero's brother Quintus argues for the validity of divination.] “According to many accounts, one time after an earthquake occurred, a voice was heard coming from the Temple of Juno on the Citadel, saying that an expiatory sacrifice of a pig had to be performed. This Juno was henceforth called Moneta [the “Warner”].”

    Cicero, On Divination 1.101


    18.5.

    The home of Manlius was located where the temple and mint of Moneta are located today.

    Livy, History 6.20.13


    18.6.

    I have written to Philotimus in Rome about getting money from the Moneta for my journey.

    Cicero, Letters to Atticus 8.7.3


    18.7.

    The Books of the Magistrates are written on linen and deposited in the Temple of Juno Moneta.

    Livy, History 4.20.8

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